Are the stars of the firmament the only matter that exists in the universe?

According to astronomers, the stars and galaxies that we see in the sky account for only 4% of the matter that exists in the universe; 23% of non-visible matter would be made up of so-called DARK MATTER, while the remaining 73% of non-visible matter would consist of DARK ENERGY.
However, this begs the question as to what happens with the 73% of the invisible matter: the so-called DARK ENERGY.

First off, let us take a look at the colors.
Why do we see different colors? The reason is the frequency at which the light waves reach our eyes.

Figure 1
Yellow waves reach us with greater frequency than red ones, which are more spaced out (less frequency).

It is this wave frequency that distinguishes one color from another.

In 1929, the American astronomer, Edwin Hubble – after whom the space telescope was named – while observing distant stars and galaxies from the Mount Wilson telescope, realized that their light was perceived as a more reddish hue instead of yellow or white.
That is to say, the waves were arriving at less frequency than they should.

Figure 2:
He came to the conclusion that this change of color and frequency occurred because the galaxies were moving further away from us at great speed and, as a result, the speed at which these galaxies were going in the opposite direction would have to be subtracted from the speed of the light coming towards us from the galaxies.

It was in this subtraction where the waves were losing the frequency that they should initially display, thus explaining the red hue, pursuant to the so-called Doppler Effect.

The whole Universe was expanding at great speed, just as if we had blown up a balloon.
If we rewind a film showing the expansion of the Universe we will get to the point at which this expansion started, namely, the Big Bang.

On the other hand, the further away the galaxies, the redder their waves became.
However, there was hardly any movement towards red in the nearby galaxies.

It seemed as if the galaxies were not only moving further away from one another, but that their speed was increasing along the way.
However, the initial inertia of the Big Bang does not suffice for acceleration.
There also has to be something pressing the accelerator.

The fuel required for this acceleration is what we refer to as Dark Energy.
According to Einstein’s Theory of Relativity, energy is equal to mass (E = MC2 ), or to put it another way, mass is the fuel we need for the Universe to expand in an accelerated manner.

A lot more matter- energy in the Universe than we can see with the naked eye is needed for accelerated expansion to occur; We would need a matter-energy that would consist of 73% of the entire matter of the Universe.

But where is that 73% of invisible matter-energy? The answer to the question lies in what we would call the “Dark Energy Enigma”.
Nevertheless, there is an explanation for the Dark Energy Enigma.
It can be found by way of the second of the most established theories in physics: “Quantum Theory” and the “Standard Model”, which claim the existence of a minute, gravity-carrying particle, the Higgs Boson.

The entire Universe would be full of these Higgs Bosons, given that gravity is present throughout.
There would be a large number of Higgs Bosons in Black Holes and a minimum amount of them in empty space, something that cannot be denied given that gravity is present there too.

The Higgs Boson would be present as a type of blanket spread over entire Universe.

Figure 3
This blanket is represented in sky blue in the image, while the black dots would be the Higgs Bosons.

There would, therefore, be an invisible mist in space with a low concentration of Higgs Bosons, which would gradually attract the rays of light (an attraction described by Albert Einstein and proved in the 1919 experiment: two British expeditions, one from the western coast of Africa and the other from Brazil, photographed a total solar eclipse.

The stars nearest the sun became practically invisible and displayed an arc deflection of approximately 1.7 seconds in the photograph).

The light would then experience a slight attraction owing to this invisible mist of Bosons, accumulated throughout space over millions of light years, which would gradually stall the light waves, giving rise to them being observed by us as having shifted towards red in their spectrum on reaching the Earth.

Figure 4:

Figure 5;
The stalling of the light waves would give rise to their tending towards red.
An apparent Doppler Effect situation would arise due to the stalling of the light waves.
This gradual slowing down of the waves would explain why the more distant galaxies appear to be moving away at a greater speed than the nearer galaxies. It can simply be put down to the fact that the light waves are stalling over a longer distance before reaching the Earth.

The consequences of such an interpretation would explain at one fell swoop the 73% of matter-energy that we are missing in the Universe: this matter would simply not be needed given that the Universe would not expand in an accelerated manner.

Nevertheless, it would divest the Big Bang of its most important proof, given that it would question the expansion of the Universe.

In the absence of the accelerated expansion of the Universe, we would no longer need this expansion driving force, namely, Dark Energy.

Neither would the existence of a static or immobile Universe have been demonstrated, we would simply have to make new measurements taking this wave stalling-effect into account.

This theory would be backed up by one of the bases of General Relativity, “the redshift”.

The gravitational shift of the light towards red in the presence of fields subject to intense gravity: the frequency of the light decreases on passing through a region with a high level of gravitation.

Indeed, this theory would simply have to be extended to fields with slight gravitational force.
Occam 's Razor is a line of reasoning that says the simplest answer is often correct.
Hubble answer for redshift requires the existence of dark energy, where is the 73% of missing matter in the Universe?, and the existence of a repulsive gravity.
“Stalled wave theory” answer for redshift does not require the existence of dark energy or 73% of missing matter in the Universe or a repulsive gravity. Choose yourself the right answer.

Author: Angel Pérez Sánchez ; Professor of Astrophysics and Human Studies Association in Madrid-Spain.

This article has been registered on the Madrid Territorial Copyright Register (20-10-2008) under file no. 12/rtpi-008541/2008
In the Spanish scientific web,”Textos Científicos”, (1-3-2009), to be found at the following link:


And also in:


Other A.Pérez publications:

Magic Universe
Tornados theory
Magnetism Nature

Dark Matter
Magnetic Monopole
DNA and Evolution etc.